The following equations take into account all of the relevant resistance components:
Rolling friction including the dynamic (speeddependent) rolling friction, air drag including the influence of wind speed, mechanical losses, and uphill/downhill forces.

P 
Rider's power 
V 
Velocity of the bicycle 
W 
Wind speed 
H_{nn} 
Height above sea level (influences air density) 
T 
Air temperature, in ° Kelvin (influences air density) 
grade 
Inclination (grade) of road, in percent 
β 
("beta") Inclination angle, = arctan(grade/100) 
m_{bike} 
Mass of the bicycle (influences rolling friction, slope pulling force, and normal force) 
m_{rider} 
Mass of the rider (influences rolling friction, slope pulling force, and the rider's frontal area via body volume) 
C_{d} 
Air drag coefficient 
A 
Total frontal area (bicycle + rider) 
C_{r} 
Rolling resistance coefficient 
C_{rV} 
Coefficient for velocitydependent dynamic rolling resistance, here approximated with 0.1 
C_{rVn} 
Coefficient for the dynamic rolling resistance, normalized to road inclination; C_{rVn} = C_{rV}*cos(β) 
C_{m} 
Coefficient for power transmission losses and losses due to tire slippage (the latter can be heard while pedaling powerfully at low speeds) 
ρ 
("rho") Air density 
ρ_{0} 
Air density on sea level at 0° Celsius (32°F) 
p_{0} 
Air pressure on sea level at 0° Celsius (32°F) 
g 
Gravitational acceleration 
F_{rg} 
Rolling friction (normalized on inclined plane) plus slope pulling force on inclined plane 